Non-Verbal Commuication Modes

What is non-verbal communication?

Definition (CBC): “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener] (Samovar et al). Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes — but is not limited to:

      touch

 

      glance

 

 

      volume

 

      vocal nuance

 

      proximity

 

      gestures

 

      facial expression ? pause (silence)

 

      intonation

 

      dress

 

      posture

 

      smell

 

      word choice and syntax

 

    sounds (paralanguage)

Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language:

 


Why is non-verbal communication important?

Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a high-context culture). It has multiple functions:

      -Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions.

 

      -Often used to accent a verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words).

 

      -Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a “wink” may contradict a stated positive message.

 

      -Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or not speak).

 

    -May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise, interruption, etc) — i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions (i.e. a nod instead of a yes).

Note the implications of the proverb: “Actions speak louder than words.” In essence, this underscores the importance of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.