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Illustrated Presentations

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The illustrated presentation will be the main method by which new knowledge or understanding will be communicated to participants. There is at least one presentation in each day of the course.
For the training the content will tend to be:
– Introduction to new laws or regulations.
– Introduction to or explanation of new or changing skills requirements.
– Demonstration of new approaches.
– Illustration of new working methods.

Most presentations are timed to last a maximum of about 45/60 minutes. This means 30 minutes of presentation and 15 minutes for stops, questions and participant thinking.

To develop a presentation you will need to think about:

The Objective
Write down clearly in less than thirty words the objective and output of the presentation.
What will the participants know or be able to do at the end that they were not able to do before the presentation?
Example: Objective from Module CP4
“By review of the new Tanzania budget reform proposals, permit the participants to identify the additional financial benefits for CP Investments.”

The Material
– Collect together the body of knowledge you wish to pass on to the participants.
– Decide whether it can all be presented or should be given to read as self-study.
– Select at least three examples or stories to tell within the presentation.
– Decide what you wish the participants to get by way of notes or handouts.
– Decide what you want to show visually – slides, diagrams etc.

The Structure
– Structure the presentation into manageable parts – see example below.
– Decide on the timing for each section of the presentation.
– Fit in moments for the participants to be able to ask questions or for you to ask whether they are understand the concepts or the process.

Here is an example of a well-structured presentation again using Capital Budgeting as the topic.


Some Comments

The designer has:
– Set a learning objective for the presentation.
– Decided on the range of topics to be covered.
– Broken the topics into sub-headings.
– Put it into a logical sequence.
– Decided on the visual aids (slides).
– Set aside time for questions and participant observations.
– Allocated the time over the topics.

If we analyse the presentation it has been divided into six phases:
– An Introduction and Objective Phase.
– A First Facts and Illustration Phase.
– A First Observations or Questions by Participants Phase.
– More Facts and Illustration Phase.
– A Second Observations or Questions by Participants Phase.
– A Closing and Final Questions Phase.

Even in a presentation the participants can be involved, in this case on three occasions.

Giving Presentations

All instructors will need some notes, whether they use cards or paper. The notes not only help the instructor keep to the objective; they also can act as the key points to be handed out before or after the session to the participants.

Some points on good practice follow:

Instructor Notes
– Make sure you can read them.
– Break them into headings and subheadings.
– Use double spacing.
– Use colour for headings to highlight key points.
– Number each page or card.
– Make notes on the margin to remind you of timings and slides.

If you have the time practice the presentations before to familiarise yourself with the presentation and to build up your confidence.

Question Time(s)
If your presentation is interesting participants will ask questions. Instructors must decide when they will fit in question time. There are three options:
– Random, where any participants can stop the presentation and ask a question
– Periodic, at the end of each phase
– At the end.

Random is suitable for small groups studying complex issues. This approach is not recommended for groups of more than ten participants.
Periodic is useful where the presentation has various parts (as in our example above).
Questions at the end allow the instructor to control the questions and the presentations to run smoothly. However, if the participants do not understand the issues at the beginning waiting to the end will be too late.

Dealing with Questions
Questions from participants are important signals of their interest and that you are not meeting your objective in the presentation. No matter what the nature of the question:
– Listen carefully to it
– Thank the questioner
– After thought, answer concisely.

If you do not know the answer, better say so. It may be that the regulation has not been written, or that you have not had experience of the issue in the question. However always indicate that you will find out the current position and respond to the questioner afterwards.

Ensure that all participants who wish to ask questions have the opportunity. Avoid having one or two persons asking all the questions and dominating the group.

Make yourself available at lunch and refreshment breaks to answer additional questions.